Submitting a Patch¶
Patches are the best way to provide a bug fix or to propose enhancements to mangos-zero.
Step 1: Setup your Environment¶
Install the Software Stack¶
Before working on mangos-zero, setup a C++ friendly environment with the following software:
- GCC 4.7 or above;
- MySQL 5.5 or above;
- CMake 2.8 or above;
- ACE 6.0 or above;
Set up your user information with your real name and a working email address:
$ git config --global user.name "Your Name" $ git config --global user.email email@example.com
If you are new to Git, you are highly recommended to read the excellent and free ProGit book.
If your IDE creates configuration files inside the project’s directory,
you can use global
.gitignore file (for all projects) or
.git/info/exclude file (per project) to ignore them.
Windows users: when installing Git, the installer will ask what to do with line endings, and suggests replacing all LF with CRLF. This is the wrong setting if you wish to contribute to mangos-zero. Selecting the as-is method is your best choice, as Git will convert your line feeds to the ones in the repository. If you have already installed Git, you can check the value of this setting by typing:
$ git config core.autocrlf
This will return either “false”, “input” or “true”; “true” and “false” being the wrong values. Change it to “input” by typing:
$ git config --global core.autocrlf input
Replace –global by –local if you want to set it only for the active repository
Get the mangos-zero Source Code¶
Get the mangos-zero source code:
- Create a BitBucket account and sign in;
- Fork the mangos-zero repository (click on the “Fork” button);
- After the “forking action” has completed, clone your fork locally
(this will create a
$ git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:YOURUSERNAME/server.git
- Add the upstream repository as a remote:
$ cd server $ git remote add upstream email@example.com:mangoszero/server.git
Step 2: Work on your Patch¶
Before you start, you must know that all the patches you are going to submit must be released under the GPL version 2 license, unless explicitly specified in your commits.
Create a Topic Branch¶
Each time you want to work on a patch for a bug or on an enhancement, create a topic branch:
$ git checkout -b BRANCH_NAME develop
Use a descriptive name for your branch (
XXX is the
GitHub issue number is a good convention for bug fixes).
The above checkout commands automatically switch the code to the newly created
branch (check the branch you are working on with
Work on your Patch¶
Work on the code as much as you want and commit as much as you want; but keep in mind the following:
- Read about the mangos-zero conventions and follow the
coding standards (use
git diff --checkto check for trailing spaces – also read the tip below);
- Do atomic and logically separate commits (use the power of
git rebaseto have a clean and logical history);
- Squash irrelevant commits that are just about fixing coding standards or fixing typos in your own code;
- Never fix coding standards in some existing code as it makes the code review more difficult (submit CS fixes as a separate patch);
- Write good commit messages (see the tip below).
A good commit message is composed of a summary (the first line),
optionally followed by a blank line and a more detailed description. The
summary should start with the Component you are working on in square
[Documentation], ...). Use a
added ..., ...) to start the summary and don’t
add a period at the end.
Prepare your Patch for Submission¶
When your patch is not about a bug fix (when you add a new feature or change an existing one for instance), it must also include the following:
- An explanation of the changes in the relevant
[BC BREAK]or the
[DEPRECATION]prefix must be used when relevant);
- An explanation on how to upgrade an existing application in the relevant
UPGRADEfile(s) if the changes break backward compatibility or if you deprecate something that will ultimately break backward compatibility.
Step 3: Submit your Patch¶
Whenever you feel that your patch is ready for submission, follow the following steps.
Rebase your Patch¶
Before submitting your patch, update your branch (needed if it takes you a while to finish your changes):
$ git checkout develop $ git fetch upstream $ git merge upstream/develop $ git checkout BRANCH_NAME $ git rebase develop
When doing the
rebase command, you might have to fix merge conflicts.
git status will show you the unmerged files. Resolve all the conflicts,
then continue the rebase:
$ git add ... # add resolved files $ git rebase --continue
Push your branch remotely:
$ git push --force origin BRANCH_NAME
Make a Pull Request¶
You can now make a pull request on the
mangoszero/server BitBucket repository.
To ease the core team work, always include the modified components in your pull request message, like in:
[Core] Fixed something [BuildSystem] Supported something
The pull request description must include the following checklist at the top to ensure that contributions may be reviewed without needless feedback loops and that your contributions can be included into mangos-zero as quickly as possible:
| Q | A | ------------- | --- | Bug fix? | [yes|no] | New feature? | [yes|no] | BC breaks? | [yes|no] | Deprecations? | [yes|no] | Tests pass? | [yes|no] | Fixed tickets | [comma separated list of tickets fixed by the PR] | License | GPL version 2 | Doc PR | [The reference to the documentation PR if any]
An example submission could now look as follows:
| Q | A | ------------- | --- | Bug fix? | no | New feature? | no | BC breaks? | no | Deprecations? | no | Fixed tickets | #12, #43 | License | GPL version 2 | Doc PR | mangoszero/documentation#123
The whole table must be included (do not remove lines that you think are not relevant). For simple typos, minor changes in the PHPDocs, or changes in translation files, use the shorter version of the check-list:
| Q | A | ------------- | --- | Fixed tickets | [comma separated list of tickets fixed by the PR] | License | GPL version 2
Some answers to the questions trigger some more requirements:
- If you answer yes to “Bug fix?”, check if the bug is already listed in the issues and reference it/them in “Fixed tickets”;
- If you answer yes to “New feature?”, you must submit a pull request to the documentation and reference it under the “Doc PR” section;
- If you answer yes to “BC breaks?”, the patch must contain updates to the relevant
- If you answer yes to “Deprecations?”, the patch must contain updates to the relevant
If some of the previous requirements are not met, create a todo-list and add relevant items:
- [ ] Submit changes to the documentation - [ ] Document the BC breaks
If the code is not finished yet because you don’t have time to finish it or because you want early feedback on your work, add an item to todo-list:
- [ ] Finish the feature - [ ] Gather feedback for my changes
As long as you have items in the todo-list, please prefix the pull request title with “[WIP]”.
In the pull request description, give as much details as possible about your changes (don’t hesitate to give code examples to illustrate your points). If your pull request is about adding a new feature or modifying an existing one, explain the rationale for the changes. The pull request description helps the code review.
In addition to this “code” pull request, you must also send a pull request to the documentation repository to update the documentation when appropriate.
Rework your Patch¶
Based on the feedback on the pull request, you might need to rework your
patch. Before re-submitting the patch, rebase with
merge; and force the push to the origin:
$ git rebase -f upstream/develop $ git push --force origin BRANCH_NAME
When doing a
push --force, always specify the branch name explicitly
to avoid messing other branches in the repo (
--force tells Git that
you really want to mess with things so do it carefully).
Often, mangos-zero team members will ask you to “squash” your commits. This means you will convert many commits to one commit. To do this, use the rebase command:
$ git rebase -i upstream/develop $ git push --force origin BRANCH_NAME
After you type this command, an editor will popup showing a list of commits:
pick 1a31be6 first commit pick 7fc64b4 second commit pick 7d33018 third commit
To squash all commits into the first one, remove the word
pick before the
second and the last commits, and replace it by the word
squash or just
s. When you save, Git will start rebasing, and if successful, will ask
you to edit the commit message, which by default is a listing of the commit
messages of all the commits. When you are finished, execute the push command.